Japanese Glossary


                                                            Japanese-English Glossary of Martial-Arts Terms

age                                        rising

ai nuke                                  mutual preservation or escape

ai uchi                                   mutual destruction or death

aiki                                        blending of energy

ashi                                       foot, leg, step

ashikubi                                 ankle

ate                                         strike

atari                                       striking the body to cause  damage

atemi                                     striking the body to causeoff balance or distraction

awase                                     to come together

ayumiashi                             normal style of walking with alternating steps

benkei                                    inside of shin

bo                                           stick or staff, typically six feet long

bokken                                  a wooden sword

bokuto                                   a wooden sword

budo                                       the way of war; the way ofturning aside weapons

bushido                                  the way of the warrior

chokusen                               direct

chudan                                  middle

chushin                                  center of balance

chusoku                                 ball of foot

dachi                                      stance, posture

dan                                         a black belt rank

deshi                                       student, disciple, follower

do                                           way; trunk of body

dojo                                        a place of training

dori                                         to grab

doshu                                     the head of a style

ensho                                     back of the heel

fudo                                       immovable

fukushidoin                          assistant instructor

gaeshi                                     turn, counter

gamae                                    stance, posture

gansei                                     the eyeball

garami                                   to entangle

gari, kari                                reap

gatame, katame                    hold

gatana, katana                       blade, sword

gedan                                     lower torso

gekan                                     front of chin

geri, keri                                kick

gi                                             a training uniform

go                                            five

goshi, koshi                           hip

guruma                                  wheel

gyaku                                     reverse

hachi                                      eight

haisoku                                  instep

haito                                       ridge‑hand

hajime                                   begin

hakama                                 a traditional split skirt worn over the gi

hanbo                                    a baton, typically about three feet long

hanmi handachi                     position with nage sitting, uke standing

happo                                    eight ways, eight directions

hara                                        the center of mass just below the navel

harai                                       sweep

henka                                     variation

hichu                                      base of the throat

hidari                                      to the left side

hiji                                          elbow

hiki                                         to pull

hineri                                      twist

hiza                                        knee

hon                                         principal, main, regular

honasu                                   release

ichi                                          one

iri                                             to enter

jime                                        choke, constrict

jiyu waza                              free‑style practice of techniques

jo                                            short staff, typically four or five feet long

jodan                                     high

ju                                            gentle, ten

juji                                          cross

jutsu                                       practice of technique

jutte                                        a short metal truncheon with a single hand guard

kai                                          an organization

kaiten                                     rotary, revolving, rolling

kakato                                   heel

kake                                       an attack, the moment of throwing

kaku                                       angle

kan                                         school, building, insight

kansetsu                                joint manipulation

karate                                    empty hand, chinese hand

kari, gari                                reap

kasumi                                   side of the head, temple

kata                                        shoulder, formal exercise

katame, gatame                    hold

katana, gatana                        blade, sword

katate                                    a single hand

keiko                                      training, practice

kentsui                                   hammer fist

keri, geri                                 kick

ki                                             vital energy

kiai                                         a shout which focuses power in a technique

kihon                                      something that isfundamental

kio tsuke                                attention

ko                                           minor

kohei                                      a junior student

koki                                        self challenge

kokyu                                    breath

koshi, goshi                           hip

kote                                        wrist

kotsu                                      bone

ku                                           nine

kubi                                        neck

kudaki                                   to crush

kujiki                                      to wrench

kumite                                   sparring

kumijo                                   jo matching exercise or partner practice

kumitachi                              sword matching exercise or partner practice

kuzure                                    modified

kuzushi                                  disturbing or breaking of balance

kyokotsu                               the sternum

kyu                                         grade

kyusho                                   vital point

maai                                       proper distance (from the opponent)

mae                                        front

maki                                       to enfold or wind

matte                                     stop immediately

mawashi                                circle, to rotate

metsuke                                eye contact

migi                                        to the right side

mudansha                             a non-black belt rankedperson

mune                                      chest

mushin                                   a mind which is free toreact appropriately

musubi                                   harmony, interaction

muto                                      unarmed combat against an armed opponent

nagare                                    flowing

nage                                       throw, person doing throw

nana                                       seven

naname                                 diagonal direction

ni                                             two

no                                           of

nukite                                     spear finger

o                                              major, large

obi                                          a belt

omote                                    to the front

ori                                           to break

osae                                        to press down

osu                                          to push

otoshi                                     to drop

randori                                   free, unstructured practice

rei                                            bow

reigi                                         respect, etiquette

ritsurei                                    standing bow

roku                                        six

ryo                                          both

ryu                                          school of thought

sabaki                                    movement

san                                          three

sankaku                                triangle

seiken                                     fore fist

seiza                                       kneeling position

sempei                                   senior (black belt) student

sensei                                     teacher, one who has gonebefore

seoi                                         to carry on the back

shi                                           four, dead

shiai                                        competition

shibari                                    to tie

shichi                                      seven

shidoin                                   formal title meaning roughly, “instructor”

shihan                                    a master instructor

shiho                                      four directions

shikaku                                  dead angle

shikko                                    knee walking

shime                                     strangle

shin                                         mind

shinai                                     bamboo and leather practice sword

shinken                                  sharpened metal (live) blades

shomen                                  the front of the head, forward

shuji                                       a point to mark for attack

shuriken                                 a good estimate of an enemy’s plan; a throwing star

shuto                                      knife‑hand

sokkotsu                                instep

sokuto                                    foot edge

sonomama                           do not move

soto                                        outside

suburi                                     repetition

suigetsu                                solar plexus; a distance from which either opponent can strike

suki                                         an opening in one’s defenses

sutemi                                    to throw away or sacrificethe body

suwari waza                          kneeling techniques

tachi                                       standing, sword

tai                                           body

tanden                                   pit of stomach

tanto                                      knife

taoshi                                     to throw down

te                                             hand, fist

teisho                                     palm heel

tekubi                                     wrist

tenkan                                   turning

toketa                                    broken

tomeru                                   to stop

tori                                          person doing technique

tsugiashi                                steps in which the feet do not alternate

tsuki, zuki                              punch, thrust

tsukuri                                    fitting in for a throw

tsuri                                        lifting

uchi                                        strike, inner

ude                                         arm, forearm

uke                                         block, person receiving technique

ukemi                                     falling properly; receiving technique with one’s body

unsoku                                   foot movement

uraken                                   back fist

ushiro                                     reverse, rear, from the back

uto                                          bridge of nose

waki                                       side, armpit

waza                                      technique

yame                                      position of finishing alertly

yoi                                          position of being ready

yoko                                       side

yon                                         four

yoshi                                      continue

yudansha                              a black belt ranked person

zanshen                                 follow through, awareness

zarei                                       kneeling bow

zori                                        sandals

zuki, tsuki                              punch, thrust